Las obras de BoscŠn y algunas de Garcilasso dela Vega. Repartidas en quatro libros. Ademas que ay muchas aŮadidas, uan aqui mejor corregidas mas coplidas y en mejor orden que asta agora han sido impressas.

Autore BOSCŃN ALMOGŃVER, Juan (c. 1490-1542)-VEGA, Garcilaso de la (c. 1501-1536).
Tipografo Antonio Salamanca
Dati tipografici Roma, 
Prezzo Venduto/Sold
Las Obras

8vo (153x98 mm). 271, (1 blank) leaves. Woodcut imperial coat-of-arms on the title-page. Contemporary or slightly later vellum over boards, spine with two small raised bands and inked title (below the title are the capital letters “ICO”; a later shelf label is pasted on the front cover). On the title-page later manuscript ownership's inscription: “Bibliot. Coll. Regien.”. Loss of vellum in the lower part of the spine, small stain on the front cover, title-page a bit soiled, slightly browned throughout, insignificant dampstains in the upper margins of the last 10 leaves, but all in all a very good, genuine copy.

RARE EDITION, probably the sixth or seventh, printed in Rome by the Spanish typographer Marco Antonio Martínez, better known as Antonio Salamanca from the name of his hometown, who was active in Rome between 1519 and 1547. Despite the corrections and additions announced in the title-page, the edition is a faithful copy of the first imprints of the work.

The first edition of Boscán & Garcilaso's poetical works appeared in Barcelona on March 1543, followed by over twenty reprints issued before the end of the century, which testify the incredible success of this collection: Lisbon, 1543; Medina, 1544, 1553; Antwerp, 1544, [1545], 1550, 1554, 1556, 1569, 1570, 1576, 1597; Toledo, 1547, 1558; Lyons, 1549; Venice, 1553; Valladolid, 1553; Estella, 1555; Barcelona, 1554; Granada, 1575; Alcalá de Henares, 1575; Zaragoza, 1577.

Boscán's poems are divided into three books: the first comprises his work of medieval tradition; the second contains ninety-two sonnets and ten ‘canciones' in the Italian style; book three includes the Epístola a Mendoza, the allegorical poem Octava rima and the famous poem Leandro, based on the ancient Greek fable of ‘Hero and Leander' (cf. W. Boutcher, “Who taught thee rhetoricke to deceive a maid?”: Christopher Marlowe's Hero and Leander, Juan Boscán's Leandro, and renaissance vernacular humanism, in: “Comparative literature”, Eugene, University of Oregon, 52, 1, 2000, pp. 11-52).

Book four contains Garcilaso's poems. Under the influence of Petrarch and the Italian Renaissance poets as well as the Classical authors, Garcialso wrote elegies (Elegías), eclogues (Églogas, including an Égloga a Boscán), canzoni (Canciones), and sonnets (Sonetos), in which he admirably adapts the eleven-syllable line to the Spanish language.

The collection was published after Boscán's death by his widow, Ana Girón de Rebolledo. Garcilaso had died in 1536 and Boscán had been charged with the task of editing some of his friend's works together with his own. But he also died a few months before the book was issued on March 1543.

The main innovation of this collection and one of the major reasons of its big impact (with all the reactions that followed) lies in the idea itself of publishing together the two most innovative Spanish poets of the time. Despite its posthumous appearance, the edition was carefully prepared by Boscán. Even a most superficial analysis of the first 1543 edition (which is strictly followed by the present) reveals a clear editorial strategy. The disposition of the texts reflects, in an organic and consistent manner, the different stages of Boscán and Garcilaso poetic career, from the eight-syllable poems of the old Spanish tradition (which are almost completely neglected in the collection) to the newly-introduced Italian verse forms, and shows Boscán's aim of giving to the collection an international character and the dignity of the Classical and Italian poetry. The collection opens with a programmatic poem to the Duchess of Soma (not accidentally a woman; Boscán's detractors accused his poetry of being for women, “ser para mujeres”), in which Boscán expresses his judgment of the previous Spanish lyrics and explains his poetical program, shared with Garcialso, that was followed for more than a century by most of the Iberian poets (cf. P. Ruiz Pérez, Las ‘Obras' de Boscán y Garcilaso: modelo editorial y modelo poético, in: “Calíope”, vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, pp. 15-44).

Juan Boscán Almogávar (Joan Boscà i Almogàver in Catalan) was born in Barcelona somewhere between 1487 and 1492. Around 1507, he moved to the court of Fernando and Isabel, where he became a student of the Italian humanist Lucio Marineo Siculo, who taught him how to translate Italian and Classical poetry into Spanish. In 1522 Boscán was appointed as a tutor to Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba. In this same year, he participated with his close friend Garcilaso de la Vega (whom he had first met at the Spanish court) to the defense of Isle of Rhodes against the Turkish invasion. Boscán fought against the Turks again in 1532 in Vienna with Álvarez de Toledo. Boscán died on September 1542, while he was working at the publication of his and Garcilaso's poems (cf. G.B. Kaplan, ed., Juan Boscán, in: “Sixteenth-Century Spanish Writers”, vol. 318: Dictionary of Literary Biography, Chicago, 2006, pp. 14-21).

Boscán was the first poet to incorporate hendecasyllable verses into Castilian. Together with Íñigo López de Mendoza, who wrote sonnets in the Italian style, Boscán was one of the first to use the present-day structures of the sonnet in Spanish poetry. It was Andrea Navagero, Venetian ambassador to Spain, who persuaded Boscán to abandon the traditional eight-syllable verses of Spanish poetry (cf. A.J. Cruz, Imitación y transformación: el petrarquismo en la poesía de Boscán y Garcilaso de la Vega, Amsterdam-Philadelphia, PA, 1988).

At the Spanish court, in the 1520s, Boscán was also influenced by another Italian ambassador and a friend of Navagero, Count Baldassare Castiglione. Boscán was urged by Castiglione himself and Garcilaso to translate Castiglione's epoch-making book Il Cortegiano into Spanish; his translation was published in 1534 to great success (cf. M. Morreale, Castiglione y Boscán: el ideal cortesano en el renacimiento español, Madrid, 1959).

If Boscán was the pioneer of the new Spanish poetry, there is no doubt that Garcilaso de la Vega was the most influential poet to introduce Italian Renaissance verse forms, techniques and topics to Spain. His poetry was very popular during his lifetime and has continued to be so without interruption until the present. He had a great influence on all the major subsequent Spanish authors, such as Jorge de Montemayor, John of the Cross, Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora and Francisco Quevedo (cf. R.P. Sebold, Garcilaso de la Vega en su entorno poético, Salamanca, 2014).

Garcilaso was born in Toledo between 1501 and 1503, the second son of nobleman who granted him an extensive education and after his death a sizeable inheritance. Garcialso mastered five languages (Spanish, Greek, Latin, Italian and French) and learned how to play many music instruments. In 1520 he joined the imperial guard of Charles V and in 1523 was made a member of the Order of Santiago. Garcilaso took part in most of the campaigns conducted by Charles V in Italy, Germany, Tunisia and France. In 1532, for a short period, he was exiled to a Danube island, where he was the guest of Count György Cseszneky. Garcilaso fought his last battle in France, dying on October 1536 in Nice from an injury sustained in the battle of Le Muy (cf. B. Creel, Garcilaso de la Vega, in: “Dictionary of Literary Biography”, vol. 318: Sixteenth-Century Spanish Writers, G.B. Kaplan, ed., Chicago, 2006, pp. 62-82).

Edit 16, CNCE7190; P. Salvá y Mallen, Catálogo de la Biblioteca de Salvá, Valencia, 1872, I, no. 475.

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